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Native American Response and Resistance to Spanish Conquest in the San Francisco Bay Area, 1769-1846

September 17th, 2014 by Simratpal

Master’s Thesis Anthropology: Gustavo Adolfo Flores Santis

Faculty Committee Members: Dr. Charlotte Sunseri (Chair), Dr. Roberto Gonzalez, Dr. Damien Bacich and Mr. Alan Leventhal

gustavo santis

Background/Abstract: This study focuses on how secular, governmental, and ecclesiastical Hispanic Empire institutions influenced the response and resistance of San Francisco Native American groups from 1769 to 1846.  This project draws on late 18th and early 19th century primary Spanish documents and secondary sources to help understand the context of indigenous people’s adaptive and response behaviors during this period as well as the nuances of their perspective and experience.  Using both electronic and physical documents from a number of archival databases, primary Spanish documents were translated and correlated with baptismal and death mission records.  This allowed for formulating alternative perspectives and putting indigenous response and resistance into context.  The results of this study indicated that when acts of resistance to the colonial mission system led by charismatic Native American leaders are placed into chronological order, it appears these responses did not consist of isolated incidents.  Rather, they appear to be connected through complex networks of communication and organization, and formal Native American armed resistance grew more intensive over time.

Part of Gustavo’s study presented background information and ramifications of three significant Native American resistance leaders and their revolts spanning from 1821 to 1839: Pomponio an alcalde from Mission Dolores in San Francisco, Estanislao the alcalde from Mission San José and Yozcolo an alcalde from Mission Santa Clara.

Recent Accomplishments and Projects: Gustavo has worked on various lithic (stone tool) collections at SJSU.  In 2013 presented a summary of his study at the Southwestern Anthropological Association (SWAA) conference in Orange County.  He has also worked on the Roberto/Suñol Adobe project with Judge Paul Bernal.  More recently he has been hired as an archaeological field technician with Holman and Associates and has been excavating at CA-SMA-78 in the city of Hillsborough.  He is currently involved with researching and translating 19th Century Spanish primary documents for the Bay Area Cultural Landscape Research Group (BACLRG), a collaboration between Foothill College, Stanford University, and Mid-Peninsula Regional Open Space District.


The Skeletal Biology and Archaeological Analysis of Prehistoric Site: CA-SCL-851

February 17th, 2014 by Anthropology Department

Primary Investigators: Colin Jaramillo and Alan Leventhal.

Colin Jaramillo examining skeletal remains.


 Faculty Sponsors: Dr. Marco Meniketti and Mr. Alan Leventhal

Background: In the year 2000, construction for a Public Storage facility near downtown San Jose uncovered Native American remains beneath the planned foundation and parking area. Once the skeletons were uncovered during construction, Public Storage contracted with the Muwekma Ohlone Tribe’s Ohlone Families Consulting Services to develop a mitigation program that included a burial and archaeological data recovery program.  A total of 10 ancestral Ohlone skeletons were recovered from site CA-SCL-851, also renamed by the Muwekma Tribe as the ’Utthin širkeewis Tcitca ’Irekmatka [Two Black Obsidian Rocks Site].  Following the burial recovery, there was no funding provided by Public Storage for any of the osteological or archaeological analyses and as a result these individuals have since been curated at San Jose State University, and have been periodically reviewed by faculty and students as part of Leventhal’s Anthropology 195 class.  Recently there have been collaborative studies conducted on this population by Dr. Eric Bartelink (CSU, Chico) on Stable Isotope, and Ancient DNA by Drs. Brian Kemp and Cara Monroe from Washington State University.  A co-authored final report will present information on the field work, excavation methods, paleo-environmental conditions, skeletal analysis/inventory, stable isotope analysis, ancient DNA, artifact analysis, C-14 (AMS) dating, obsidian hydration and an ethnohistory of written by the Muwekma Ohlone Tribe.

 College of Social Sciences Foundation Research Grant: 
In order to accomplish some dating goals stated above Colin applied for a grant from the College of Social Sciences Research Foundation this past Fall 2012 semester.  Colin was awarded $2000.00 for his research proposal and the resulting AMS dates from Beta Analytic will be updated here. Colin will be presenting information on this collaborative study at the 41st Annual Western Departments of Anthropology and Sociology Undergraduate Research Conference, Santa Clara University on Saturday, April 12, 2014.

The Archaeological Analysis of Prehistoric Site SCR-12

February 17th, 2014 by Anthropology Department

Primary Investigator/Master’s Project: Gerald Starek, Jr.

Faculty Sponsors: Dr. Marco Meniketti, Dr. Charlotte Sunseri, and Mr. Alan Leventhal

Background: In 1986 the Department of Anthropology at San Jose State University conducted a field school on a portion of prehistoric site CA-SCR-12 located near downtown Santa Cruz.  After completion of the excavation a preliminary review and classification of the archaeological assemblage had been made by SJSU staff.  Furthermore, previous investigations published limited results from adjacent areas of this massive site, however, no attempt at radiocarbon dating the age of this site had ever occurred.  Furthermore, although obsidian was recovered from the 1986 excavation as well as earlier investigations, no attempt by any of the archaeological investigators was made to either source (through XRF) the obsidian flaked stone artifacts or conduct hydration (dating) studies.  Permission has been granted by the Muwekma Ohlone Tribe to pursue radiocarbon dating of the human remains and features recovered from the site and also to conduct obsidian sourcing and hydration studies on the artifacts.  Analysis of the archaeological assemblage recovered from this site has been conducted as part of Leventhal’s Anthropology 195/280 class during the 2012 Fall semester.  These studies will contribute to the writing of a final archaeological report on the CA-SCR-12 excavations as part of Gerald’s thesis.


College of Social Sciences Foundation Research Grant: Gerald was awarded $1995.00 for his research and the resulting AMS dates from Beta Analytic were: 3,590± 30 years BP (corrected to 1956 BC on a human femur); 2990 ± 40 BP (556 BC) on a Sea Lion bone and, 2750 ±30 BP (240 BC) on California Mussel shell.


The Analysis of the Archaeological Assemblage from Prehistoric Site CA-SCL-671

May 16th, 2013 by Anthropology Department

Primary Investigators: Matthew Diez and Alan Leventhal (for Anthropology 195)

Faculty Sponsors: Dr. Marco Meniketti and Mr. Alan Leventhal

 Background: In 1989 Alan Leventhal in conjunction with student volunteers and members from the Muwekma Ohlone Tribe and Amah Mutsun Tribal Band conducted an archaeological salvage program on a portion of prehistoric site CA-SCL-671, located in northern Morgan Hill at the historic Murphy Springs locality.

After obtaining a negative declaration from an Archaeological/Cultural Resource Management (CRM) firm the developer proceeded to construct a series of single family houses, thus unsuspectingly destroying a major portion of this site.  After construction around the spring ceased the developer noticed an array of potential Native American artifacts in backdirt piles and he contacted Alan Leventhal for an assessment.  Upon surveying the impacted areas of the site, Leventhal and Ohlone Indian tribal representatives from the two tribes began collecting many groundstone, flaked stone and formed artifacts such as large dart points from disturbed contexts.  Based upon the types of archaeological artifacts recovered, the site had the potential of dating back to either Late Archaic and/or Early Bay time period (2000 – 4000 BC).

Leventhal requested permission to place a series of test excavations within an area that was to set aside as a park and slightly away from the area of impact.  Several of the excavation units yielded stratigraphic integrity that included the superposition of mortars and pestles, manos and metates and flaked stone artifacts.  Current research conducted as part of Leventhal’s Anthropology 195 class includes the comprehensive analysis of the recovered archaeological assemblage, temporal dating of the identified strata, obsidian sourcing and hydration studies and the writing of a final report co-authored with Matthew Diez.

 College of Social Sciences Foundation Research Grant:

In order to accomplish the dating of stratigraphic living surfaces identified at this site, Anthropology Senior, Matthew Diez applied for a grant from the College of Social Sciences Foundation Research and was awarded $1350.00 for his research design.  Before the end of the Spring 2013 semester, three samples will be sent to Lawrence Livermore Labs for C14 AMS dating.  Once the results have been obtained, they will be posted here.


Ancient Flora and People Paleoethnobotany of a Thai Rockshelter Site

May 16th, 2013 by Anthropology Department

Investigator/Master’s Project: Hannah Van Vlack

Faculty Sponsors: Dr. Charlotte Sunseri, Dr. Marco Meniketti and Dr. Ben Marwick

Background: Khao Toh Chong (KTC) is an archaeological rockshelter site located outside of Krabi, in the southern Thailand peninsula. This site is significant to Southeast Asian (SEA) archaeology because of the similarity to, and closeness in range of Lang Rongrien- a famous late-Pleistocene rockshelter site in this region.  AMS dating at KTC provides a timeline of occupation that dates earliest observable human presence to approximately 15,000 years before present, the end of the Ice Age.  This timeline of human occupation at the site is significant because prehistoric hunter-gatherer groups were very mobile in the Thai peninsula, this may be a reaction to the rising sea level.  This means that the groups moved between caves and rockshelters frequently because they provided shelter from storms, protection for fires or hearths, good lighting during the day, and they acted as a reliable landmark for navigation. In addition to the benefits rockshelters provide for prehistoric groups, they have well-stratified and undisturbed deposits.


Many caves and rockshelter sites in Thailand yield well-preserved faunal and floral remains.  This is certainly the case for KTC, making the site a rare and significant find to the SEA archaeological record.  Previous geoarchaeological analysis of KTC has shown that this rockshelter is well-stratified and undisturbed, indicating the need for palynological analysis of sediments samples to better understand the prehistoric occupation residing here, and perhaps the shift in human behavior from pre-agricultural to agricultural societies.  Sediment samples were taken from each stratified unit of the south wall for geoarchaeological and palynological analyses.  Using palynological methods could help explain the subsistence patterns of humans beyond zooarchaeological analyses previously done for the site.  The timeline of this archaeological site predates the spread of agriculture in SEA, a topic of much debate. In this case, archaeobotanical evidence could help explain the shift of subsistence and use of the rockshelter.

The results of this study will be the focus of Hannah’s Master’s thesis.

College of Social Sciences Foundation Research Grant:

Hannah submitted a proposal for funding in order to investigate the paleoethnobotany of Khao Toh Chong rockshelter in Thailand and was awarded $1,000.00 for her research.  Her paleoethnobotany study of examines human interactions with ancient plant material.  Methods of research involve a rigorous literature review as well as palynological methods for processing sediment samples collected from an archaeological site.  The results of this analysis will benefit the understanding of Southeast Asia archaeology, human consumption patterns during the end of the Ice Age, and landscape manipulation by humans in the region.  Additional observations about environmental dynamics can also be identified by employing palynological methods.